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Instructions for New Teachers

Instructions for new Teachers

1. Hesitations

2. In a state of flux: Education in Pakistan

3. The Relative Efficiency of Private and Public Institutes in Developing Countries.

4. The Role of Private Sector / Punjab College: The Educator of the Youth

5. Working Code - Teachers

6. Two Religions of Teaching

7. Essential Teaching Skills

8. Classroom Management

9. How are we managing learning and coping with behaviour?

10. Co-curricular activities

11. Assessing Students Progress

12. Reporting Students Progress

13. Question Paper Setting

14. Mathematics – a case study


Personal Touch


I feel indebted to you for your affection. Deo volente, I will reciprocate your affectionate behaviour with my work. In this dossier, my addressee is the teacher, especially the new entrant. While writing these pages, I employed circumspection and brevity. However, it is an effort on the part of an individual and no individual is infallible.

Here, I deem it wise to clarify that the inclusion of Mathematics as the subject of a case study (pages 19-22) is only and purely on the bases of its high score-ability and appeal to reason.

As our students complete their education and after sixteen years or fewer than sixteen as their studies come to a close the students face the challenge: of what use have their studies been? Have they found in their studies only the amusement of recounting the rise and fall of nations and ideas, and retelling “sad stories of the death of kings”? Have they learned more about human nature than the man in the street can learn without so much as opening a book? Have they derived from education any illumination of our present condition, any guidance for our judgments and policies, any guard against the rebuffs of surprise or the vicissitudes of change? Have they found such regularities in the sequence of past events that they can predict the future action s of mankind or the fate of states? Have they learned to adopt and adjust themselves to the changing realities of the world? Are they well-equipped to sustain, survive and progress?

Since man is a moment in astronomic time, a transient guest of the earth, a spore of his species, a scion of his race, a composite of body, character, and mind, a member of a family and a community, a believer or doubter of a faith, a unit in an economy, perhaps a citizen in a state or a soldier in an army, we may ask under the corresponding heads – astronomy, geology, geography, biology, ethnology, psychology, morality, religion, economics, politics and war – What education (as a system) has to say about the nature, conduct, and prospects of man? It is a precarious enterprise and only a fool would try to compress twenty two centuries into twenty-two pages of hazardous conclusions. We proceed.

In a State of Flux- Education in Pakistan

In the Principles of Social Reconstruction (1916) Bertrand Russell writes – almost all education has a political move: it aims at strengthening some group, national or religious or even social in the competition with other groups. It is this motive in the main which determines the subject taught, the knowledge offered and the knowledge withheld and also decides what mental habits the pupils are expected to acquire. Hardly anything is done to foster the growth of mind and spirit”.

A cautious analysis of our education system reveals the fact that the above mentioned statement presents a critique of the governments educational plans and policies.

The Relative Efficiency of Private and Public Institutes in Developing Countries

Aside from revenue mobilization, one of the arguments for allowing the private sector to assume a larger role in the provision of education is that it would increase efficiency, as administrators become more responsive to the needs of students and their parents. But what is the evidence? Based on case studies that comparative private and public education in Columbia, the Dominican Republic, the Philippines, Tanzania, and Thailand, private sector students generally outperform public sector students on standardized maths and language tests.
The Role of Private Sector
Punjab College: The Educator of the Youth

According to a Chinese saying: “A journey of a thousand miles starts with a single step”. This first step should be strong and firm. Perhaps, the time has come when we should take that first, bold, pragmatic and futuristic step to further improve the standard of education and to lift Punjab College (of IT) to new heights. If we want to emerge as a successful nation and don’t want to prostrate at the feet of developed nations for economic assistance, we will have to educate our youth in such a way that they become a helping hand in running the wheel of economy and not a burden on the (feeble) shoulders of the (already unstable) state. No doubt, there is a great gap between the utopian dreams and the stark realities of life, but it ca be paved through with vision and action. It won’t be a smooth sailing, but a purposeful action is always better than inaction, as John F. Kennedy once said:

“There are risks and costs to a programme of action but they are far less than the long-range risks and costs of comfortable inaction”.

In order to transform our youth into useful human resource, our first step should be to train our teachers because only better teachers can make better individuals and a nation’s strength lies in individuals – men and women.
Working Code – Teachers / Parameters of Work Teaching Faculty

1. Personal Hygiene
i) Immaculate dress (daily - changing clean shirt with sleeved vest)
ii) Physical cleanliness (daily bath and tooth - brushing )
iii) Daily shave (if shaving) and proper dressing / (‘Khat’) in case of beard.
iv) Proper Hair cut

2. Supervisory Role

i) Observational check on all students
ii) Corrective view of the college campus
iii) Specific inspection of own class students and instruction on their personal cleanliness and clothing.
iv) Ensuring queue of students moving out of the class whenever and wherever observed.
v) Cleanliness of classrooms where teaching
vi) Campus cleanliness [observations to be reported to the VP(s) or Principal]
vii) Instructions on students Mannerism (like greetings)
viii) Spontaneous Action for damage - control [in case of students fighting, rowdyism, injury, visitors/parents intrusion, or any other mishap]

3. Academic Activity

i) Awareness of own time table and adherence to it with strict punctuality.
ii) Acceptance and proper performance of extra-teaching as per “arrangement-periods”.
iii) Preparation for teaching through lesson plan ahead of the schedule & maintaining teacher’s diary.
iv) Making selective notes in each subject and issuance to students.
v) Effective teaching in the class as per syllabus & extensive explanation of lessons/topics.
vi) Proper management of students during the class & special attention towards weak students.
4. Written Work

i) Ensure notebooks/registers/notes etc., in each subject for classwork, homework, practicals etc.
ii) Assign good quantum of written work both for class and home.
iii) Give homework at least twice a week in major subjects and once a week in minor subjects. [Homework schedule should also be issued centrally].

5. Schedule for Checking Homework

i) Collection of written assignments – Next day from the assignment.
ii) Checking by teacher – one day after collection.
iii) Counter – Checking by Coordinator / VP/Principal – same day.
iv) Returning to the students – three days after the first collection.
v) Maintain proper record of Homework.
vi) Indicate defaulter students for information of Coordinator/VP/Principal.

6. Students Management

i) Maintain a file or Notebook on the academic performance and behaviour of all your students call-wise. Specify a page for each student.
ii) Give counseling or tongue lashing on minor matters.
iii) Major incidents of indiscipline or educational weakness be reported to the college administration.
iv) Be fully prepared to discuss academic performance and general behaviour of each and every student of your class with the administration or parents concerned.

7. Motivation

i) Lead the students by setting personal example in dress, punctuality and knowledge.
ii) Be enlightened and forward – looking in your overall approach/interaction.
iii) Be proactive.
iv) Begin with the end in mind.
v) Put first things first.
vi) Seek first to understand, then to be understood.
vii) Synergize
viii) Develop scientific attitude among your students.
ix) Give a humane outlook. [Gentleness be encouraged over narrow mindedness and hatred].
x) Impart knowledge of current affairs by encouraging newspaper reading.

8. Don’ts

i) No abusive language involving morals or family.
ii) No beauty.
iii) No political discussion.
iv) No sectarian siding.
v) No religious remarks.
vi) No inter-staff stories.
vii) No self-praising.
viii) No favour-seeking from parents.
ix) No direct communication with parents.
x) No discrimination [No favourites or informers to be made in the class].

9. First Day of College for students (Guidelines for the teachers)
i) Get to college early.
ii) Introduce yourself.
iii) Have students introduce themselves to one another/class/you (the teacher).
iv) Icebreaker activities.
v) Establish expectations.

vi) No new academic work – do review activities.
vii) Administrative – have students help - attendance.
viii) Teach signal for attention (Practice).
ix) Make contact with each and every student.
x) Teach some study skills that will help them survive your class.
xi) Establish class routines (student input – washroom, water etc).
xii) Teach them how to follow certain routines – e.g. how to come in, line up, where to hang or place different things – read to students and gather and writing sample.
xiii) Pair work (think – pair – share).
xiv) Select the class representatives, subject leaders and explain their working.
xv) Make sure students are aware of their responsibilities.
xvi) Give the class time table – Homework schedule, test schedule, academic calendar etc.
xvii) Class Rules: write/recite the class rules as needed and make the students understand their values.
xviii) Collect the student’s files, if any.
xix) Make them understand the exam/late coming/uniform/language defaulter policy.

10. Career Disasters
i) Non-performance

Never assume or dismiss corrective feedback as false. Take immediate steps to minimize or remove the shortcoming.
ii) Aimless routine

Failure doesn’t lie in not reaching your goal, but not having a goal to reach. Eighty percent of your effectiveness comes from 20% of your activities. Focus on those tasks that support your goals.
iii) Non-people skills

If employees are disliked, it’s irrelevant whether they’re good performers. Paint yourself as friendly and approachable.
iv) Limelight

Do not undermine the team you work with. Demonstrate you’re a team player by making your team and your team leader look like stars.
v) Blame game

Passing the buck will compel your superior authority to put negative notes in your personal file/record.
vi) Indiscipline

Missing deadlines is not only unprofessional; it also creates chaos with others’ schedules and makes your superiors look bad.
vii) Personal work

Being observed doing personal work or using college resources for personal use does not go down well. Have a regular reality check.
viii) Solo-flight

Don’t isolate yourself. Develop and use relationships with others in your college.
ix) Senior-Junior relationship

Senior should not take their juniors as their competitors but as their partners; and juniors must hold their seniors in high esteem.
x) Inattention to oneself

People draw conclusions from the way you present yourself. Inappropriate attire, dishonesty, use of slang and expletives should be avoided. Cubicles, hall, canteen, corridors, staffrooms, labs, stairs even bathrooms are not your private domain. Be careful what you say and to whom.

11. Raison detre

Nowadays, teaching is not a pastime/an amateurish pursuit, taken up by jobless young men/women, in order to kill time. It is a full time job and one of the highly paid professions holding new vistas of opportunities for those highly motivated professionals who are willing to devote themselves, to the task of learning and imparting knowledge. It is possible when teaching is one raison detre, with a mission to educate and a vision to convert youth into useful human resource.
12. Medium of Instruction & Conversation

i) Conversation with the students, colleagues, the admin/receptionist and the educated parents through the medium of English.

ii) In merit sections – only English / No Urdu & In weak sections – English 69% Urdu 31%.

iii) Principal office / VPs office/staffrooms/Coordinators office – English as medium, exceptions: Urdu Teachers.

Two Religions of Teaching


“I’m the main source of information”
“I’m one of the many sources of information
“Competitions and comparisons accelerate learning”
“Cooperation and sharing accelerate learning”

Teachers’ Role
Teachers’ Role

Instructor / Explainer (Boss)
Learning facilitator (Partner)

Classroom Environment
Classroom Environment

Social relationships are weak among students
Social relationships are strong among students
Lack of positive thinking
High positive thinking
Factors of motivation are external
Participants are internally motivated
Students show lack of responsibility
Students show/feel sense of responsibility and ownership
Fewer students involve for less time
More students involve for more time
Only those who know can participate
Everybody participates
Fear of failure during work
No fear of failure


Dependent learners, dependent human beings, dependent nation
Independent learners, independent human beings, independent nation
Low aims for life with low self image
High aims for life with high self image
Thinking and decision abilities are low
Thinking and decision abilities are high
People are good followers. Potential slaves
People have good leadership skills. Potential rulers.

Essential Teaching Skills

1. Planning and Preparation
i) The lesson plan should have clear and suitable aims and objectives.
ii) The content, methods and structure of the lesson selected should be appropriate for the pupil learning intended.
iii) The lesson should be planned to link up appropriately with past and future lessons..
iv) Materials, resources and aids should be well prepared and checked in good time.
v) The lesson should be designed to elicit and sustain pupils’ attention, interest and involvement.

2. Lesson Presentation
i) The teachers’ manner should be confident, purposeful and generate interest in the lesson.
ii) The teachers’ instructions and explanations should be clear and matched to pupils’ needs.
iii) The teachers’ questions should include a variety of types and range.
iv) A variety of appropriate learning activities should be used.
v) Pupils should be actively involved in the lesson and should be given opportunities to organize their own work.
vi) Materials, resources and aids should be used to good effect.

3. Lesson Management
i) The beginning of the lesson should be smooth and prompt.
ii) Pupils’ attention, interest and involvement in the lesson should be maintained.
iii) Helpful feedback should be given to pupils to encourage further progress.
iv) The time spent on different activities / stages should be well managed.
v) The ending of lesson should be used to good effect.

4. Classroom climate
i) The climate should be purposeful, task-oriented, and with an established sense of order.
ii) Pupils should be supported and encouraged to learn, with high positive expectations conveyed by the teacher.
iii) Teacher –pupil relationships should be largely based on mutual respect and rapport.
iv) Feedback from the teacher should contribute to fostering pupils’ self-confidence and self-esteem.

5. Discipline
i) Good order is largely based on the positive classroom climate established and by good lesson presentation and management.
ii) The teachers’ authority should be established and accepted by pupils.
iii) Clear rules and expectations regarding pupils’ behaviour should be conveyed by the teacher at appropriate times.
iv) Pupils’ mis-behaviour should be dealt with by an appropriate use of investigation, counseling, academic help, reprimands and punishments.

6. Assessing Pupils’ Progress
i) Marking of pupils’ work (class assignment/Home assignment) during and after lessons should be thorough and constructive and returned in good time.
ii) Feedback on assessments should be aimed to encourage further effort and maintain self-confidence.
iii) A variety of records of progress should be kept.
iv) Assessment of pupils’ work should be used to identify areas of common difficulties, the effectiveness of the teaching and to check whether a firm basis for further progress has been established.

7. Reflection and evaluation
i) Lessons should be evaluated to inform future planning and practice.
ii) Current practice should be regularly considered with a view to identifying aspects for useful development.

iii) The teacher should regularly review whether his/her time and effort can be organised to better effect
iv) Whatever the subject or topic, each lesson should start with some activity/task which occupies every student quietly, while teachers deal with registration / roll-call or latecomers (if any).
v) The type of activity / task should depend on the ability of the students and the nature of the lesson, but it must be something within each students’ capacity to accomplish without additional help.

Classroom Management

1) Six Questions to Identify the Causes of Resistance to Learning:
i) What can I do to establish a positive learning ATTITUDE?
ii) How can I best meet the NEEDS of my learners?
iii) What about this learning will continuously STIMULATE the learner(s)?
iv) What is the EMOTIONAL CLIMATE OR How is the Emotional Climate?
v) How does this learning increase or affirm the learners’ feelings of COMPETENCE?
vi) What is the REINFORCEMENT for this learning?
2) Goals of Misbehaviour (Why stdents misbehave?)
a) Attention
b) Assumed disability Goals may change.
c) Power
d) Revenge
3) Five Essential Acts of Teaching
a) Knowing the students.
b) Engaging and Motivating
c) Modeling
d) Judging and Evaluating
e) Reflecting and Renewing
4) Four payments of teaching
a) Flexible time.
b) Contribution to knowledge
c) Lifelong regard from students
d) Company of the young
5) Discipline Principles
i) Discipline constructively.
ii) Discipline consistently

iii) Explain why rules must be followed
iv) Never demean or embarrass your student
v) Discipline honesty
vi) Discipline without comparisons
vii) Discipline at the moment (Do not delay)
viii) Monitoring the results of your discipline efforts
ix) Do not dwell on issues
x) Offer praise and encouragement when your student responds positively to your discipline
6) Contract for productive classroom dialogue
i) Listen
ii) Respect one another
iii) Take Risks
iv) Embrace discomfort [discomfort = growth]
v) Relate all personal examples to the readings and discussions
vi) Evaluation will be based on quality of argument and not on point of view
vii) Give credit where credit is due
7) Time Management
i) Daily planner/diary
ii) Personal planning time
iii) Welcome back! (missed work)
8) People Management
i) Let’s Get Acquainted
ii) Assigning classroom responsibilities
iii) Ways to Assign and manage students jobs
iv) Classroom Management:
a) Strategies/techniques (eye contact, questioning, confirming, checking, restating, redirecting)

b) Basic requirements (Language skills, fluency, creativity and initiative, adopt lessons to students experience, lesson planning & record keeping)

c) Teaching responsible behaviour

d) Using Humour to correct behaviour

e) Discussing and Resolving Problem with students

f) Parent interaction (direct or face to face/telephone)
9) Space Management (Room arrangement etc)

a) Keep High Traffic Areas Free of congestion
b) Be sure students can be easily seen by the teacher
c) Keep frequently used teaching material and student supplies readily accessible

d) Be certain students can easily see instructional presentations and displays.

How are we Managing Learning and coping with Behaviour?

1) Management Skills
i) Withitness
ii) Overlapping
iii) Pacing
iv) Self-Presentation

2) Managing Classroom Episodes
i) Beginnings
ii) Transitions
iii) Crises
iv) Endings
3) Coping Strategies

4) Discipline
Co-Curricular Activities

The following bodies (clubs/societies etc) should be set up / founded:

1) Literary society 1 English Chapter
2 Urdu Chapter
2. Science Society
3. Islamic / IQRA Society
4. Readers Club
5. Art Club
6. Dramatic Club / Society (English + Urdu)
7. Music Society
8. Sports Club
9. The Green Group / Environmental Club (council/Community)
10. Discipline Committee (discipline, cleanliness, functions, emergency)
11. Health Club.

Assessing Students Progress

Assessment refers to any activity used to appraise students’ performance. It refers techniques you can use to monitor students’ progress in terms of specific learning outcomes.

Assessment can serve a number of different purposes, which are as follows:

i) To provide you with a feedback about students’ progress.
ii) To provide students’ wit educative feedback.
iii) To motivate students.
iv) To provide a record of progress
v) To provide a statement of current attainment.
vi) To assess students’ readiness for future learning.
Types of Assessment
1) Formative assessment
2) Summative assessment
3) Nor-referenced assessment
4) Diagnostic assessment
5) Internal assessment
6) External assessment
7) Informal assessment
8) Formal assessment
9) Continuous assessment
10) Terminal assessment
11) Objective assessment
12) Process assessment
13) Product assessment
Reporting Students Progress
Feedback to students about their progress is of immense importance in contributing to motivation and further progress. In addition, however, you also need to report on pupils’ progress on a regular basis to parents, either in the form of written reports and / or during meetings with them. Teachers’ comments about students should cover the following areas:
i) Ability
ii) Attitude to subject
iii) Behaviour
iv) Confidence
v) Effort
vi) Examination results
vii) Homework
viii) Progress
ix) Maturity
x) Participation
xi) Presentation of written work
xii) Future performance
xiii) Suggestions for improvements
xiv) Attendance
xv) Pastoral comments
Reporting (Written/Oral):
i) Should be fair, valid and meaningful
ii) Should have a positive effect on future progress
iii) Involves a number of skills
iv) Should be concise and to the point
v) Should highlight th­e problems of the student (s) with solutions/remedial task
Question paper setting
Basic Principles
Title Page
Each question paper must state the following on the title page. College, date, class, time, subject, paper (if any), maximum marks, minimum marks, question grid showing question numbers, maximum marks for each question and space beneath for marks obtained, percentage, grade, instruction to candidates, invigilated by, checked by, marked by
General Instructions
General instructions should always be
Instructions must be totally self-explanatory and need no further interpretation by the supervisor. Candidates should be able to read the instructions and clearly understand from them what is required. Such instructions may include:
i) The number of questions to be attempted
ii) Which (if any) are compulsory
iii) Where to write the answers
iv) What equipment may or may not be used (e.g. in Maths calculator, compass, protector etc)
v) General points which the candidates must know where necessary.
Decide what is being tested
i) Over the whole paper
ii) With each question
Are the questions appropriate?
A. Each question must carry a clear, unambiguous instruction as to what is expected of the candidate.
Candidates should not be diverted from their task by having to seek clarification of questions.
A basic fault: examiners assume that, having taught students in a particular way, the students then understand what is required of them.
B. Everything that is required of the candidate must be stated clearly in the question. DO NOT ASSUME THAT CANDIDATES CAN READY YOUR MIND! Always set your paper as though it is going to be sat by someone you have not taught who has studied the same syllabus
Use appropriate vocabulary and sentence structure for the targeted level/ group of students.
Try to make language familiar to the students by using local names of people, places, currency etc.

C. Make sure that the wording is:
i) accurate
ii) unambiguous (no double meaning)
iii) understood by the student

D. Diagrams must be:
Neat Clear legible accurate properly labeled

E. Use of spacing, numbers, letters:
a) Don’t crowd – delineate questions by clear spacing as well as numbering
b) When using numbers and letters for sub-questions, don’t use the same type twice in the same question e.g.
Q.1 What are the following……………….?



(c)………………………….. right
(a) …………………

(i) …………………
(b) ……………….

(ii) ……………….
F. Check thoroughly for accuracy of
Spelling Grammar Punctuation
Don’t use unnecessary capitals e.g.
Q. Define photosynthesis and Respiration. List three important differences between photosynthesis and respiration.
Comment: The use of the capital R for respiration distracts candidates…
Is it more important?

Why the lower case ‘ r ’ later?

G. Are the terms and concepts used in the questions known to the candidates?

Q. Give an illustrated account of …………………?
Comment: How much ‘illustration’, how much ‘account’?
Do they know what is meant by describe? Comment on? Define? Illustrate? Elucidate? Narrate? Expound? Exemplify? Elaborate?
2. Question Types & Their Construction
a) Multiple Choice the hardest to construct – the easiest to mark. They are designed to measure knowledge, understanding, and thinking skills in most subjects. The following points should be noted:
i) Lead-in should be clear and simple.
ii) It should be grammatically the same as the choices, i.e. same tense/ singular or plural/subject and verb should agree etc.
iii) Avoid negatives.
iv) Choices should all be possible with ONE better than the rest, i.e. Identify the marsupial in – platypus, dingo, koala.
v) Avoid should follow in sequence – i.e. Henry VIII of England had 3,4,5,6 wives.
vi) Avoid using choices like – all of these, or none of these.
vii) Make sure that there is only ONE correct answer.
viii) Make your choices reasonable and of the same length.
ix) Check that the answers are in random order, i.e. 1A, 2C, 3D, 4B, 5C, 6A etc.
x) Now – Construct 5 Multiple – Choice questions, (each with 4choices), in the subject you teach and at the level you usually teach (xi/xii).
b) True/False questions are good for checking knowledge of facts, terms and conditions. However, they encourage guessing, so there should be no more than 5 in any test/exam. In writing them you should --
i) Use clear and simple language (true of any type of question).
ii) Make sure the answer is fact, not opinion!
iii) Avoid the use of negatives.
iv) Avoid use of “may be” words such as sometimes, always, may, some, often etc.
v) As with M.C., mix the answers randomly.
vi) As with M.C., construct 5 T/F questions in your subject and preferred level (xi/xii)

c) Matching Columns These are good for obtaining detailed knowledge in specific areas, i.e. Prime Ministers and their countries; dates and events; terms and definitions, etc. things to be noted--
i) Give clear instructions as to what is to be matched and how it is to be done
ii) Make your columns of unequal length to avoid guessing.
iii) Number one column – use letters for the other.
iv) Construct a test in the area of your expertise.
v) Give clear, concise ad unambiguous choices.

d) Fill the Gaps – Completion Test
Good questions to establish facts – not easy to guess answers. They are easy to construct and if done with care they are relatively easy to mark.
i) Make sure that there is ONLY ONE correct work to fill the blank.
ii) Blanks should be in the middle or towards the end of a sentence –NEVER AT THE BEGINNING.
iii) Use one or two (never more) blanks in the sentence. Make each blank the same size regardless of the number of letters in the word.
iv) Avoid using clue words before a blank i.e. a or an, one or some etc
v) Construct five sentences with blanks using a topic of a subject that is familiar to you
e) Short Answer Questions
Good questions in the upper classes (xi & xii)
i) They minimize guessing and encourage thinking and expression and allow for flexibility of the students response.
They may be – write a paragraph on ………… Draw a diagram of … Label the following diagram; Briefly explain the difference between ……….. Explain the contribution of ………… to the founding of Pakistan, in brief: Write brief notes on four of the following………………. etc, etc.
ii) They are relatively easy to construct and with a good mark schedule, quite easy to mark.
iii) Widely used in subjects as varied as English, the Science, Pakistan Studies, Islamiyat, Urdu and Maths.
iv) Choose a topic – then construct two different types of short answer questions.
f) Essay Questions a common feature of intermediate exams – widely used in Intermediate – level institutions. The main problem is in making the question specific. For instance “Write an essay on photosynthesis” – this is so wide it can be covered in a book let alone a 500 word essay. Such criticism may be true so far as other subjects like history, geography, science, etc., are concerned but in languages, where the ability to express oneself coherently and lucidly is a major objective, essay – type tests appear to be the only valid tests of communicative competence in writing.
g) Test of tests
The quality of a test is usually judged on the basis of the following criteria:

1) Objectivity a) Content validity
2) Validity b) Concurrent validity
3) Reliability
4) Administrability / Useability
5) Suitability
6) Motivationality c) Predictive validity
7) Scoreability d) Construct validity

Marks Allocation
i) Weightage: Marks must reflect the degree of difficulty / length of the question and required answer. This is critically important.

Show the section marks on the question paper clearly and in a consistent pattern. Maximum marks for each question must be written on the line where the question ends
ii) Marks must add up to the paper’s total!
a) Ensure that what is required to be covered is included. Is the syllabus fairly covered?
b) Do not include untaught matter!
c) BE FAIR! Exams are not meant to trick the candidates. They are also the test of your teaching!
d) Don’t over-test the same point. Avoid drill or repetition of the concept.
a) Is more than one answer acceptable?
b) Is the answer able to be expressed in different ways?
c) Is there no definitive answer, instead, the marks reflect the method of approach?
d) Are the marks for working?
e) Do you have possible answer information sub-divided into
must have
could have
and marks reflect this? e.g.
must have for full marks: points (a)(b)(c)(d) [i.e. if any of these points are missing, full marks cannot be obtained]. Could have points (e)(f)(g) etc., or other acceptable material.
The WHOLE APPEARANCE of the paper must be CLEAR AND UNCLUCTTERED. Spacing is important, as is use of headings and having important instructions stand out and catch the eye.
Proof Reading
[a] as you go
[b] on completion of draft
[c] Printed draft
a) Title and instructions
b) Use of bold, italics, capitals, etc in the right places e.g. headings and sub-headings
c) Spacing and General appearance
d) Alignments – marks, question numbers, figures in maths
B. Specific
a) Line-by-line
b) Anything missing
c) Spelling
d) Punctuation
e) Sense of questions
f) Grammar
g) Ambiguities
h) Marks weighting
i) Marks addition
j) Figures - correct
k) Diagrams – accurate, clear
Length of the paper should be appropriate to the time allocation. The average student must be able to finish it in the given time. Paper should not be lengthy or too short. For accuracy teachers must time each question themselves.
Workshop on Paper Setting
Preparation of Exam Syllabus
Before setting up question papers the most important step is preparation of exam syllabus. It should be prepared very carefully by the head in coordination and consultation with all the concerned teachers.
Marking Key (Solved Answer Paper)
Teachers must submit a solved answer paper with each question paper. The solved paper in Maths and exact sciences must indicate all the steps of the anser and correct answer itself.
In Languages and Pak. Studies & Isl., the solved paper must enlist the points which the teacher seeks in the answer.
Marking Scheme
A good marking scheme is essential, not only for correcting a paper fairly, but it also helps a teacher to think about the quality of the question itself, by breaking it up into parts, and allocating adequate weightage to each part. For example, English essay, total marks 15 Fifteen marks could be broken as:
Subject matter, originality of ideas:5 style, vocabulary, spellings and grammar: 6 Planning, introduction, paragraphing, conclusion:4

What is Mathematics?
It is the science of logical reasoning. OR
It is a way to settle in the mind a habit of reasoning.

This reasoning is of peculiar kind and possesses a number of characteristics such as simplicity, accuracy, certainty of results, originality, similarity to the reasoning of life and verification.

Mathematics Teacher should know that

i) Why should everybody learn mathematics?
ii) Why should this subject be taught to everybody?
iii) What is the place of mathematics in any scheme of education?
iv) What is the importance of this subject in life and in college curriculum?
v) What will be the advantage of devoting so much effort, time and money to the teaching of mathematics?
vi) What are the aims and purposes of teaching mathematics?
vii) How does it make any contribution in the development of an individual?
Principles of Meaningful Mathematics Learning
1. Interest and attention
2. Definite aim
3. Principle of utility
4. Importance of learning activities
5. Motivation
6. Proper attitude
7. Correlation
8. Proper use of mental faculties
9. Law of exercise
Mathematics Teaching Methodologies

1) Lecture Method
2) Dogmatic Method
3) Inductive – Deductive Method
4) Heuristic Method
5) Analytical – Synthetic Method
6) Laboratory Method
7) Project Method
8) Concentric Method

Tips for Mathematics Teachers

1) Practice all aspects of manipulative algebra within the syllabus.
2) Practice answering questions without a calculator.
3) Practice answering questions that require explanations.
4) Practice answering unstructured questions.
5) Practice accurate drawing.
6) Practice answering questions which exploit the calculator, aiming for efficiency.
7) Encourage the checking of answers, especially for reasonableness.
8) Encourage well laid out but concise work.
9) Make sure candidates learn the formulae they need.
10) Practice rounding numbers but only at the appropriate stage.


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