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Improving fluency in English speaking Skills

 Improving fluency in English speaking Skills

I. Introduction

  • Importance of fluency in English speaking skills

  • Overview of topics to be covered

II. Phonetics

A. List of Phonemes

  • Definition of phonemes

Examples of English phonemes, such as /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /g/, /f/, /v/, /θ/, /ð/, /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /h/, /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /l/, /r/, /w/, and /j/

  • B. List of Consonants and Vowel Sounds

  • Definition of consonants and vowel sounds

  • Examples of English consonants and vowel sounds, such as /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /g/, /f/, /v/, /θ/, /ð/, /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /h/, /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /l/, /r/, /w/, /j/, /i/, /ɪ/, /e/, /ɛ/, /æ/, /ɑ/, /ʌ/, /u/, /ʊ/, /o/, /ɔ/, and /ə/

III. Phonology

A. Allophones

  • Definition of allophones

Examples of English allophones, such as the aspirated /p/ sound in "pat" and the unaspirated /p/ sound in "spat"

  • B. Syllables

  • Definition of syllables

  • Examples of English syllables, such as "but-ter-fly," which has three syllables

IV. Pronunciation Rules

  • Overview of common pronunciation rules in English, such as the silent "e" rule and the "ch" pronunciation rule

  • Examples of each pronunciation rule

V. Common Expressions

A. Contractions

  • Definition of contractions

Examples of common English contractions, such as "can't," "won't," and "shouldn't"

  • B. Tongue Twisters

  • Definition of tongue twisters

  • Examples of common English tongue twisters, such as "She sells seashells by the seashore"

VI. Minimal Pairs

  • Definition of minimal pairs

  • Examples of English minimal pairs, such as "bat" and "pat," which have different meanings based on a single sound difference

VII. Conclusion

  • Recap of key points

  • Importance of practice in improving English speaking skills.


Speaking: improving speaking fluency

List of Phonemes+ examples:

List of consonants and vowel sounds+examples:

Allophones+ examples:

Syllables+ examples:

Pronunciation rules:

List of common Contractions in English:

List of Most Common Tongue twisters:

List of Minimal pairs:


Improving Fluency in English:

List of Phonemes + Examples

  1. Phonemes are the basic units of sound in a language. Here are some of the most common phonemes in English with examples:

  • /b/ as in "bat"

  • /p/ as in "pat"

  • /t/ as in "top"

  • /d/ as in "dog"

  • /k/ as in "cat"

  • /g/ as in "go"

  • /f/ as in "fun"

  • /v/ as in "van"

  • /s/ as in "sit"

  • /z/ as in "zip"

  • /ʃ/ as in "ship"

  • /ʒ/ as in "vision"

  • /h/ as in "hat"

  • /m/ as in "man"

  • /n/ as in "no"

  • /ŋ/ as in "sing"

  • /l/ as in "left"

  • /r/ as in "right"

  • /j/ as in "yes"

  • /w/ as in "wet"

List of Consonants and Vowel Sounds + Examples

  1. Consonants and vowels are the two types of sounds in English. Here is a list of the most common consonants and vowel sounds in English with examples:

Consonants:

  • /b/ as in "bat"

  • /p/ as in "pat"

  • /t/ as in "top"

  • /d/ as in "dog"

  • /k/ as in "cat"

  • /g/ as in "go"

  • /f/ as in "fun"

  • /v/ as in "van"

  • /s/ as in "sit"

  • /z/ as in "zip"

  • /ʃ/ as in "ship"

  • /ʒ/ as in "vision"

  • /h/ as in "hat"

  • /m/ as in "man"

  • /n/ as in "no"

  • /ŋ/ as in "sing"

  • /l/ as in "left"

  • /r/ as in "right"

  • /j/ as in "yes"

  • /w/ as in "wet"

Vowels:

  • /æ/ as in "cat"

  • /ɑ/ as in "father"

  • /ɔ/ as in "caught"

  • /ɪ/ as in "sit"

  • /i/ as in "beet"

  • /e/ as in "bed"

  • /ʊ/ as in "put"

  • /u/ as in "boot"

  • /ə/ as in "about"

  • /ɛ/ as in "pen"

  • /ʌ/ as in "cup"

  • /o/ as in "boat"

  • /aɪ/ as in "ice"

  • /aʊ/ as in "house"

  • /ɔɪ/ as in "boy"

  • /ɪə/ as in "ear"

  • /eə/ as in "air"

  • /ʊə/ as in "tour"

Allophones + Examples

  1. Allophones are variations of phonemes that occur in different contexts. Here are some examples of allophones in English:

  • /p/ as in "pin" and /pʰ/ as in "spin"

  • /t/ as in "stop" and /tʰ/ as in "top"

  • /k/ as in "skip" and /kʰ/ as in "keep"

  • /s/ as in "sit" and /z/ as in "zip"

  • /p/ as in "spin" and /b/ as in "bin"

  • /t/ as in "tap" and /d/ as in "dab"

  • /k/ as in "cat" and /g/ as in "go"

  • /f/ as in "fish" and /v/ as in "very"

  • /θ/ as in "think" and /ð/ as in "this"

Syllables + Examples

  1. A syllable is a unit of sound that contains a vowel sound. Here are some examples of syllables in English:

  • "but" has one syllable

  • "table" has two syllables

  • "camera" has three syllables

  • "elephant" has three syllables

  • "alphabet" has three syllables

  • "television" has four syllables

  • "university" has five syllables

Pronunciation Rules

  1. Pronunciation rules help learners understand the sounds of English and how to produce them correctly. Here are some pronunciation rules in English:

  • The letter "a" can have different sounds depending on the word (e.g. "cat" vs. "car")

  • The letter "e" can be silent (e.g. "like") or pronounced as a long "e" sound (e.g. "meat")

  • The letter "h" is silent in some words (e.g. "hour") and pronounced in others (e.g. "house")

  • The letters "gh" can be pronounced in different ways (e.g. "laugh" vs. "enough")

  • The letter "r" can be pronounced in different ways (e.g. "car" vs. "water")

List of Common Contractions in English

  1. Contractions are a way to shorten words and phrases in English. Here are some common contractions in English:

  • I'm = I am

  • you're = you are

  • he's = he is

  • she's = she is

  • it's = it is

  • we're = we are

  • they're = they are

  • can't = cannot

  • won't = will not

  • isn't = is not

  • aren't = are not

  • wasn't = was not

  • weren't = were not

  • doesn't = does not

  • didn't = did not

  • haven't = have not

  • hasn't = has not

  • hadn't = had not

List of Most Common Tongue Twisters

  1. Tongue twisters are phrases that are difficult to say quickly and accurately. Here are some of the most common tongue twisters in English:

  • How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood?

  • She sells seashells by the seashore.

  • Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.

  • Red lorry, yellow lorry.

  • Unique New York.

  • I saw Susie sitting in a shoe shine shop.

  • Toy boat. Toy boat. Toy boat.

  • Irish wristwatch.

  • The seething sea ceaseth and thus the seething sea sufficeth us.

  • I wish to wish the wish you wish to wish, but if you wish the wish the witch wishes, I won't wish the wish you wish to wish.

List of Minimal Pairs

  1. Minimal pairs are words that differ in only one sound. They are useful for practicing pronunciation and distinguishing between similar sounds. Here are some examples of minimal pairs in English:

  • mat / met

  • pen / pin

  • bat / bet

  • sit/sat

  • ship / sheep

  • pat / pet

  • hat / hot

  • bit / bet

  • cap / cab

  • tack / tag

  • light / right

  • cat / cut

  • sell / cell

  • seen / sin

  • there / their

  • know / no

  • which / witch

  • peace / piece

  • meat / meet

  • grate / great



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